One of the most heard-of contagious diseases that could end up in death if neglected, is tuberculosis, commonly known by its abbreviation TB. The disease is characterized by the formation of hard grayish nodules known as tubercles caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and it affects in the lungs initially but can also spread to the other organs.
Tuberculosis is divided into two categories, and a number of types that are listed below,
The first category is pulmonary tuberculosis which lets the bacteria easily spread from an infected person to a healthy one inhaling infected air because of a cough or sneeze of an infected person. There are a few types of TB that fall under pulmonary TB, they are:
- Primary Tuberculosis Pneumonia: This is an uncommon type that generally appears to be pneumonia and is very infectious. It mostly affects very young children and the elderly. It is also seen in people with immunosuppression like people suffering from HIV/AIDS.
- Tuberculosis Pleurisy: Usually developed soon after the initial infection, it is caused because of a rupture in the granuloma at the edge of the lung resulting in a pleural space which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. Usually, there is some fluid present in the pleural space but when the amount of fluid increases dramatically and compresses the lung, it causes shortness of breath and sharp chest pain that worsens with a deep breath known as pleurisy.
- Cavitary Tuberculosis: The TB bacteria causes progressive lung destruction by forming cavities, or enlarged air spaces. In this condition, the upper lobes of the lung are affected as they are highly oxygenated. The condition is very contagious.
- Miliary TB: this kind of TB is disseminated; spread widely in the lungs. It is known as miliary because of its appearance on the chest x-ray. It looks like very small millet seeds spread throughout the lung.
- Laryngeal Tuberculosis: In this condition, the larynx, or the vocal cord area is infected and the condition is very contagious.
- The second category of tuberculosis is extrapulmonary tuberculosis which refers to the infection in organs other than the lungs like the pleura, lymph nodes, abdomen, genitourinary tract, skin, joints, and bones, or meninges. This tuberculosis occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients.
- Lymph Node Disease: Lymph nodes have macrophages that arrest the bacteria. These lymph nodes can harbor uncontrolled replication of bacteria, resulting in enlarged lymph nodes.
- Tuberculosis Peritonitis: In this condition, the outer lining of the intestines and the linings that are inside the abdominal wall produce increased fluid as in the case of tuberculosis pleuritis.
- Tuberculosis Pericarditis: The heart is surrounded by a membrane called pericardium, which is affected in this condition. The space between the pericardium and the heart fills with fluid, obstructing the heart from functioning efficiently.
- Osteal Tuberculosis: Infection can occur in any bone but the most common site is the spine, which can lead to compression, fractures, and deformity of the back.
- Renal Tuberculosis: This condition causes white blood cells to appear in the urine and spreads to the reproductive organs, affecting reproduction.
- Adrenal Tuberculosis: TB of the adrenal glands leads to adrenal insufficiency which is the inability of the gland to increase steroid production in times of stress. This could result in weakness and fainting.
- Tuberculosis Meningitis: Meninges are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, TB Meningitis can lead to permanent impairment and death.
Any kind of TB is contagious, and there are a number of preventive measures you can take to avoid getting infected, like covering the face while coughing. There are vaccines available too. We, at Medisys offer these preventive measures to avoid the transmission of this disease. Our staff strives to deliver quality treatment and medication to our patients.
About the Hospital:
Medisys Hospitals is a growing super speciality hospital in Hyderabad that represents the vision and mission of a group of highly qualified and experienced veteran medical professionals. Started in June 2016, it is a 200-bedded hospital with all medical and surgical specialties available. We rely on our in-house state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities to provide high-level care for our patients.