Bone cancer is the condition of developing malignant tumor that grows from the cells that make the bones of the body. There are primary and secondary bone cancers. Primary bone cancer is rare cancer where tumors grow on the bone tissue. Secondary bone cancer tumors spread to the bone after originating elsewhere.
In fact, when a patient is diagnosed with cancer in the bones, it most often is a metastasis that originated in another organ like the breast, prostate or lung and then spread to the bones in their advanced stages.
What causes bone cancer?
There is no typical cause of cancer. Cancers, in general, grows when normal cell growth and multiplication is disrupted by allowing cancer cells to divide and grow without barriers.
What are the Bone Cancer Symptoms?
- The most common symptom of bone cancer is the pain. You may feel the pain in the bones at certain times of the day, often at night, or with physical activity, initially.
- Then the pain tends to progressively worsen over time. There are fair chances of the pain being present for years and it might be ruled out incidentally while seeking treatment for a completely different condition.
- Quite a few times swelling or a lump is felt around the area of a bone cancer.
- You might even suffer from a fracture of the affected bone because of its weakened structure.
- Numbness, tingling or decrease in blood flow beyond the tumor, causing a cold hand or foot with weak or absent pulses are a few symptoms caused by compression or disruption of nerves and blood vessels in the affected area.
What are the different types of bone?
The most common type of bone cancer that occurs mostly in kids 10-19 years of age. Cancer affects more males than females and tends to grow at the ends of long bones, often around the knee, either at the end of the thigh bone (femur) or the shinbone (tibia), or the bone of the arm (humerus). But it is possible for an osteosarcoma to grow in any bone. Depending on the tumor cells, there are several subtypes of osteosarcoma.
The second most common type of bone cancer. It grows from the cartilage cells that are attached to or cover the bone. It is likely to affect people older than 40 years of age. Chondrosarcoma affects the bones of the hips and pelvis.
- Ewing sarcoma
Sometimes referred to as the Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs), is an aggressive form of bone cancer that commonly affects children of 4-15 years of age. It can grow either in the bones or in the soft tissues and is believed to originate from primitive nerve tissue. ESFTs affects more males than females. Ewing sarcoma mostly grows in the middle portion of the long bones of the arms and legs.
- Pleomorphic sarcoma
Cancer that was earlier referred to as malignant fibrous histiocytoma or MFH are typically not cancers of bone but of the soft tissues. However, these tumors may grow in the bone in up to 5% of cases. Pleomorphic sarcomas can be found anywhere in the body.
Fibrosarcoma is a rare type of bone cancer that is mostly growing behind the knees in adults.
Chordoma is a very rare cancer seen in people over 30 years of age, commonly located in either the lower or upper ends of the spinal column.
What are the treatment options for bone cancer?
- Limb-salvage surgery: The bone cancer and some surrounding healthy tissue are removed and enough bone is left to save the arm or leg. A bone graft or an endoprosthesis (internal prosthesis) is filled in the space that procedure created.
- Amputation: The surgery removes a part of or the entire leg/arm in which the tumor is located, and later an artificial prosthesis is fit.
- Reconstructive surgery: A surgery done to reshape or rebuild the part of the body that was changed by previous surgery.
- Surgery for metastases: Surgery may sometimes be used to remove the metastases if the bone cancer has spread to the other organs.
- Radiation: The therapy makes use of high-energy rays or particles to kill cancer cells.
- Chemotherapy: Very strong, anti-cancer drugs are given as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy can be given to either cure the patient, or to prolong life and reduce symptoms of cancer.
- Medication: Medication can be given to relieve pain and increase immunity.
About the Hospital:
Medisys Hospitals is a growing super speciality hospital in Hyderabad that represents the vision and mission of a group of highly qualified and experienced veteran medical professionals. Started in June 2016, it is a 200-bedded hospital with all medical and surgical specialties available. We rely on our in-house state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities to provide high-level care for our patients.