Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. Diet, excess body weight, some medical conditions, and certain supplements and medications are among the many causes of kidney stones. Kidney stones can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallise and stick together.
Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they’re recognised in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances — for example, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary tract infection or cause complications — surgery may be needed.
Causes of Kidney Stones
The leading cause of kidney stones is a lack of water in the body. Stones are more commonly found in individuals who drink less than the recommended eight to ten glasses of water a day. When there is not enough water to dilute the uric acid, a component of urine, the urine becomes more acidic. An excessively acidic environment in urine can lead to the formation of kidney stones.
Symptoms of Kidney Stones
A kidney stone usually will not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureters — the tubes connecting the kidneys and the bladder. If it becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be very painful. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:
- Severe, sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs
- Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
- Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
- Pain or burning sensation while urinating
Other signs and symptoms may include:
- Pink, red or brown urine
- Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
- A persistent need to urinate, urinating more often than usual or urinating in small amounts
- Nausea and vomiting
- Fever and chills if an infection is present
Diagnosis of Kidney Stones
Several tests can verify the existence of a kidney stone. A physical examination may reveal colicky pain in the groin and the lower near the kidneys. These are often warning signs of the condition. An analysis of the urine will indicate whether there is blood in the urine and there is subsequent infection. Blood tests can be carried out to identify complications that may accompany a kidney stone and check the validity of the diagnosis. A CT scan of the abdomen is one way to test for kidney stones.
Treatment for Kidney Stones
Treatment is tailored according to the type of stone. Urine can be strained and stones collected for evaluation. Treating kidney stones is primarily focused on symptom management. Passing a stone can be very painful. If a person has a history of kidney stones, home treatment may be suitable.
Individuals who have never passed a kidney stone should speak with a doctor. Narcotics are often used in an effort to make the pain of passing the stone tolerable. Antiemetic medication can be used in people experiencing nausea and vomiting. In some cases, a urologist can perform a shock wave therapy called lithotripsy.
This is a treatment that breaks the kidney stone into smaller pieces and allows it to pass. People with large stones located in regions that do not allow for lithotripsy may receive surgical procedures, such as removal of the stone via an incision in the back or by inserting a thin tube into the urethra.
To know more about the details regarding the disease, contact Medisys Hospital, a growing super speciality hospital in Hyderabad. They aid in improving patients’ health. You will get the best treatment according to your symptoms.